The Somali Democratic Republic, located in eastern Africa, covers an area of 637,660 km2 between latitudes 12° N and 1° 40' S and longitudes 41° and 51°E. It is bounded on the north by the Gulf of Aden, on the east and south by the Indian Ocean, on the south-west by Kenya, on the west by Ethiopia, and on the north-west by Djibouti.
Most of the country consists of dry, grassy plains, with a high mountain escarpment in the north, facing the coast. The highest peak in this range reaches 2,400 m. Only two main permanent rivers, the Juba and the Scebelli, water this dry land. Both have their source in the Ethiopian highlands, but only the Juba flows into the Indian Ocean, the Scebelli losing itself in swampy terrain.
The climate is hot with low rainfall, exceeding 500 mm only in the most favourable regions (south). The mean annual temperature varies with the location between 25°C and 28°C. In the north, 45°C can be reached during hot summer days, while the temperature can drop to just above 0°C in the mountain range.
Somalia harbours particular important Desert Locust breeding areas during the winter season in the northern coastal plains along of the Gulf of Aden, stretching from the Djibouti border to Boosaaso in Puntland. Secondary potential breeding areas during the summer and spring seasons are located in the escarpments and close to the border to Ethiopia.
Until now, Somalia has no internationally recognized government and only basic plant protection capacities with two staff at the Ministry of Agriculture of northern Somalia in Hageisa. Only with the support form EMPRES/CR surveys are being conducted to regularly monitor the breeding areas. It was possible to establish links to 20 private radio operators, who collect information on rainfall and locust observations from local travelers and nomads which is being passed to the Locust Information Office of the Ministry of Agriculture. In case of any Desert Locust developments in Somalia, the Desert Locust Control Organization for Eastern Africa (DLCO-EA) will conduct aerial control operations.